Ask an Expert: How to Treat Every Type of Acne

Stefanie Lee | 23 Sep 2015

Achieving flawless skin can be a challenge for many, especially where acne is concerned. Acne, the most common skin condition in the world, is a disorder that causes skin to break out with pimples.


It usually begins during puberty and can continue well into adulthood. Acne during puberty is often associated with oily skin, while adult acne is usually linked to drier skin. Both can take the form of a few pimples bugging the complexion to more difficult to treat breakouts that completely mar the face, back and chest.

Letting acne run its course is not always the best advice. Without proper treatment, acne can get worse or, as the acne clears, dark spots and permanent scars can appear, which all can be a blow to a person’s self-esteem. Luckily, there are many effective treatments available.

Causes of Acne

Genetics and hormonal shifts are the main causes of acne. While it is important to maintain clean skin, acne is not caused by dirt itself, as many think. Some people have a hereditary trait that inhibits dead skin cells from shedding normally. When these cells build up, they mix with the skin’s sebum and this mixture leads to clogged pores and breakouts. Hormonal changes also have significant effects on skin, which is why it is common for women to breakout pre- or mid-menstrual cycle.

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Different Types of Acne

There are many types of acne, but most cases fit within one of the following categories:

Acne vulgaris is the most common form of acne. This type of acne is made up of whiteheads, blackheads, papules and pustules plus nodules and cysts. Blackheads and whiteheads are the least severe form of acne vulgaris. They are commonly referred to as comedones, pores that are clogged with too much oil and dead skin cells. Blackheads are comedones that are open at the surface of the skin (they appear black because the oil oxidizes with the air). When the comedones are closed, they are called whiteheads (since they are blocked from air, they’re usually clear or white). This type of acne usually responds well to over-the-counter topical products.

Papules and pustules are more moderate forms of acne vulgaris. They‘re inflamed bumps on the surface of the skin that occur when P. acnes bacteria is added into the mix of oil and dead skin cells. Pustules resemble whiteheads and are filled with white or yellow pus, surrounded by irritated, red skin. Papules, on the other hand, are small red and pink bumps that are inflamed and sometimes sensitive to the touch. Both can be treated with over-the-counter preparations, but sometimes prescription medication is needed.

Nodules and cysts are more severe forms of acne. Nodules are firm, large, inflamed bumps that develop deep within the skin and are often painful to the touch. Cysts are large, deep-rooted, painful, boil-like bumps. Treating this type of acne can be a bit more difficult. They don’t respond well to over-the-counter treatments and require medical attention.

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Acne cosmetica is acne caused or worsened by cosmetics, skincare products or haircare products. The condition develops over a period of weeks and appears as small, itchy or rash-like bumps. It affects areas like the cheeks and forehead where the products are most frequently applied. This type of acne can be addressed easily by determining which products are triggering the breakouts and discontinuing use.

Acne mechanica is caused by heat, friction or pressure on skin or when skin isn’t exposed to the air. It’s common in athletes and can be caused by protective gear rubbing against skin. This type of acne usually responds well to topical products formulated for acne-prone skin. Precautionary steps like wearing absorbent material under sports equipment or cleansing after sweaty activity usually resolve the problem, though.

Plan of Action

Depending on whether you have mild, moderate or severe acne, your course of treatment will vary. Often, a dermatologist will suggest a combination of treatments depending on the severity of the acne.

Treating Mild to Moderate Acne

When treating mild cases of acne, there are many effective treatments available. According to Dr. Joshua Zeichner, director of cosmetic and clinical research in dermatology at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, blackheads and whiteheads are best treated over the counter with salicylic acid. “Salicylic acid is a beta hydroxy acid that works to dissolve the top layer of cells and also reduce sebaceous follicle blockages that lead to breakouts. It also has antimicrobial properties, which makes it very effective for caring for acne-prone and acne-erupted skin,” continues Elena Arboleda, head esthetician at Mario Badescu Skin Care in New York City. Dr. Jeannette Graf, FAAD, likes treating the comedones with a topical retinoid to prevent pore blockage.

For inflammatory bumps, like papules and pustules, Graf recommends spot treating with salicylic acid, sulfur or benzoyl peroxide to dry the pustules. “They all have excellent antibacterial coverage.” Sulfur works to dissolve the surface layer of cells and has the ability to reduce oil gland activity. Benzoyl peroxide kills acne-causing bacteria. Be sure to use the micronized version so that your skin absorbs it more efficiently. Arboleda suggests not only investing in products that contain acne-fighting ingredients like salicylic acid and sulfur, but also those that contain soothing ingredients like aloe and chamomile to calm skin. “Thyme extract is another great ingredient for acne-prone skin; like salicylic acid, it is antibacterial and naturally antiseptic,” says Arboleda.

When choosing over-the-counter formulations, it’s important to use products that will address the breakouts without being so harsh that your skin becomes unbalanced. You can tell that skin is out of whack when it is red, irritated, painful, peeling and generally uncomfortable. Heavy products formulated with rich oils should also be avoided.

“Less is more. You don’t always need a higher concentration for an effective treatment. For example, 2.5 percent benzoyl peroxide is a great place to start. It can effectively treat pimples and may be less irritating than the products that contain the higher 5 percent or 10 percent concentration,” says Zeichner.

Also, don’t use too many acne products at once. This can lead to added irritation as well as to confusion as to which product is working and which one isn’t. “Make sure to follow correct application with detailed instructions from your dermatologist,” adds Graf. And if over-the-counter treatments are not helping after two to four weeks, seek professional care. “Not getting an effective treatment early can lead to permanent scarring that can be avoided with prescription medications from your dermatologist,” says Zeichner.

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Our Panel of Doctor's Services
DR Celine Leong, Astique Clinic
Acne Treatment Programme, $349
PPx Pore-Cleansing ACNE Treatment™ (PPX) is an advanced technology that combines a gentle vacuum with therapeutic broadband light, to help rid skin of acne-causing impurities, leaving your skin cleaner and clearer. It is combined with laser treatments, chemical peels and blue LED light treatment to bring about more effective results and healthier, clearer, more youthful-looking skin.
CO2 Fractional Laser Skin Resurfacing, $399
Fractional Laser Skin Resurfacing is effective in reducing acne scars.
350 Orchard Road, #08-00 Shaw House, Singapore 238868
Dr. Dylan Chau, Celevenus Aesthetic & Wellness Clinic
Intracell, from $300 onwards
INTRAcel combines microneedling with radiofrequency and fractional resurfacing, this cutting-edge procedure with little downtime is effective for sagging skin, jowls, lines and wrinkles, large and open pores, acne and acne scarring and stretch marks/scarring.
391B Orchard Road #16-03/04 Ngee Ann City Tower B, Singapore 238874
Dr Ivan Tan, Nu.Reflections Medical Aesthetics
E-Plus Sublative Skin Renewal, from $1,000 onwards
The E-Plus Sublative Skin Renewal treatment utilises a fractional bipolar radiofrequency technology to treat mild to moderate wrinkles, acne scars, discolouration and tectural irregularities.
EnerJet Acne Scarring Removal, from $1,500 onwards
An effective treatment targetted at stubborn acne scars with the revolutionary pneumatic needle-less sytem.
123 Penang Road, Office tower #05-12 Regency House (next to old Cockpit Hotel), Singapore 238465
Dr. Terence Tan, Halley Medical Aesthetics
Acne Buster Programme 1
Get to the root of the acne problem with a treatment programme that includes laser therapy for smoother, acne-free skin and smaller pores. This programme includes a laser carbon peel, Acne Buster Facial, Deep Pore Cleansing Facial, and glycolic acid peel treatments.
Acne Buster Programme 2
Get to the root of the acne problem with a treatment programme that includes pampering yet healing facials and no downtime facial peels for smooth, acne-free skin. This programme includes a two Acne Buster Facials, two Deep Pore Cleansing Facials, and two glycolic acid peel treatments.
Acne Scars Programme
Get rid of the ugly acne scars and pigments left behind with a treatment focused on skin renewal and skin smoothening. This programme includes two fractional CO2 laser treatments and two glycolic acid peels.
277 Orchard Road, #03-15 Orchard Gateway, Singapore 238858